(from Manu Smriti IV, shlokas 195 and 196)

Impostors should neither be trusted nor served. They are of the following 11 types:

1. Dharmadwaji

(Literally one who displays the flag of virtue), is one who does not practice any virtue, but defrauds others in the name of virtue.

2. Sadalubdha

A covetous wretch.

3. Chhadmika

A deceitful person.

4. Lokadambhaka

One who brags of his greatness before others.

5. Hinsra

One who does injury to living creatures and bears malice to others.

6. Sarvabhisandhaka

One who mixes with all kinds of men, good or bad; such a person should be considered a rogue and a mean fellow like a cat.

7. Adhodrishti

One who always looks down (while walking) in order to be considered a very virtuous person.


One who is of a cruel, vindictive nature, who (just to get revenge) is ready to even murder someone who happens to do him a slight injury.

9. Swartha Sadhantatpara

One who is solely intent on attaining
his selfish end, even through fraud, injustice, and hypocrisy.

10. Shatha

One who persists in his stubbornness even though he knows he is wrong.

11. Mithia Viniti

One who is falsely demure and puts on a saintly appearance (to deceive others). He should be considered a low wretch like a heron.

(The above translation of Manu Smriti has been excerpted from Satyarth Prakash, by Maharishi Dayananda Saraswati.)

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